Composers and their stage works 


(485? - ?406 BC) Born in Phyle, Attica (Greece). Died Magnesia, Thessaly. Buried Arethusa, Macedonia


The following plays can be dated with precision: Nos. 1, 2, 3, 10, 13, and 16. Two others, Nos. 17 and 18, are known to have been performed posthumously. While the dates of Nos. 11 and 15 are reasonably precise, the rest of the plays have been dated almost exclusively on internal evidence. (Rhesus formerly grouped with Euripides's plays, is now generally considered to be the work of an anonymous author of the fourth century B.C.) In each case the first title given is a transliteration from the Greek; the first in parentheses is the Latin designation.

  1. Alkestis (Alcestis). 438 B.C.
  2. Medeia (Medea). 431 B.C.
  3. Hippolytas (Hippolytus). 428 B.C.
  4. Andromache (Andromacha; Andromache). 426? B.C.
  5. Kyklops (Cyclops; The Cyclops). Satyr play. Ca. 423 s.c.
  6. Herakleidai (Heraclidae; The Children of Heracles). Ca. 425/422 B.C.
  7. Herakles(Hercules furens; Heracles). Ca. 421 B.C.
  8. Hiketides (Supplices; The Suppliants). Ca. 420/418 s.c.
  9. Hekabe (Hecuba). 417 B.C.
  10. Troiades (Troades; The Trojan Women). 415 B.C.
  11. Elektra(Electra). 413? B.C.
  12. Iphigeneia e en Taurois (Iphigenia Taurica; Iphigenia in Tauris). Ca. 412 B.C.
  13. Helene (Helena; Helen). 412 B.C.
  14. Ion (Ion). Ca. 411 B.C.
  15. Phoinissai (Phoenissae; The Phoenician Women). Ca. 411 B.C.
  16. Orestes (Orestes). 408 B.C.
  17. Bakchai (Bacchae; The Bacchae). 405 B.C.
  18. Iphigeneia e en Aulidi (Iphigenia Aulidensis; Iphigenia in Aulis). 405 B.C.


  1. A. W. Verrall, Euripides the Rationalist, New York, 1895;
  2. W. Nestle, Euripides, Stuttgart, 1901;
  3. G. H. Macurdy, The Chronology of the Extant Plays of Euripides, Lancaster, Pa., 1905;
  4. A. W. Verrall, Essays on Four Plays of Euripides, Cambridge, England, 1905;
  5. P. Decharme, Euripides and the Spirit of His Drama, tr. by J. Loeb, New York, 1906;
  6. A. W. Verrall, The Bacchants of Euripides and Other Essays, Cambridge, England, 1910;
  7. G. Norwood, Euripides and Shaw, London, 1921;
  8. R. P. Winnington-Ingram, Euripides and Dionysus: An Interpretation of the "Bacchae," Cambridge, England, 1948;
  9. G. Norwood, Essays on Euripidean Drama, Berkeley, Calif., 1954;
  10. G. Zuntz, The Political Plays of Euripides, Manchester, England, 1955;
  11. G. M. A. Grube, The Drama of Euripides, reprint, New York, 1961;
  12. F. L. Lucas, Euripides and His Influence, reprint, New York, 1963;
  13. W. Ritchie, The Authenticity of the Rhesus of Euripides, London, 1964;
  14. G. Murray, Euripides and His Age, 2d ed., New York, 1965;
  15. G. Murray, Euripides and His Age, 2d ed., New York, 1965;
  16. G. Zuntz, An Inquiry into the Transmission of the Plays of Euripides, London, 1965;
  17. D. J. Conacher, Euripidean Drama: Myth, Theme and Structure, Toronto, 1967;
  18. E. Segal, ed., Euripides: A Collection of Critical Essays, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1968;
  19. T. B. L. Webster, Tragedies of Euripides, New York, 1968;
  20. W. N. Bates, Euripides: A Student of Human Nature, reprint, New York, 1969;
  21. S. Melchinger, Euripides, tr. by S. Rosenbaum, New York, 1973;
  22. C. H. Whitman, Euripides and the Full Circle of Myth, Cambridge, Mass., 1974;
  23. Philip Vellacott, Ironic Drama: A Study of Euripides' Method and Meaning, New York, 1975.